Part 2: The Nation-State and its Obligations

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Article 2.1 Name and Territory of the Nation-State
BHARAT, also called India, shall be a nation-state, not a union of federating states. The nation-state shall comprise of states as specified in Article 2.2.
 
Note: India, under British rule prior to independence, became a sovereign nation-state. There was no covenant by which independent states federated. It is therefore incorrect to call India a federation. Democracy is deeper than federalism. In democracy, power flows upward from the people, while autocratic states can federate. Federalism has thus been wrongly identified with democracy and has led to abuse of local jurisdictions by the federal and state governments. US federalism is democratic since each state has a democratic constitution with empowered local governments. The terms, socialist and secular, inserted in he preamble through the 42
nd constitutional amendment of 1976 have been removed, as they are confusing and redundant. Democracy, by definition, can only be egalitarian and secular.
 
Article 2.2 States
The concept of centrally administered territories is colonial and has no place in a democracy. If there can be tiny nations such as Monaco and Vatican in Europe and tiny states such as Rhode Island and New Jersey in the USA, there can certainly be tiny states in India. The territories designated Union Territories shall as from the coming into force of this Constitution become self-governing states. They shall have the power to levy property and other taxes on the property and other activities of national and other state governments for viability.
 
India shall thus consist of the following states, arranged below in alphabetical order:

1. Andhra Pradesh 
2. Andaman & Nicobar Islands* 
3. Arunachal Pradesh
4. Assam 
5. Bengal (West dropped being redundant) 
6. Bihar
7. Chandigarh* 
8. Dadra & Nagar Haveli* 
9. Daman & Diu*
10. Delhi* 
11. Goa 
12. Gujarat
13. Haryana 
14. Himachal Pradesh 
15. Jammu & Kashmir
16. Karnataka 
17. Kerala 
18. Lakshadweep*
19. Madhya Pradesh 
20. Maharashtra 
21. Manipur
22. Meghalaya 
23. Mizoram 
24. Nagaland
25. Orissa 
26. Pondicherry* 
27. Punjab
28. Rajasthan 
29. Sikkim 
30. Tamil Nadu
31. Tripura 
32. Uttar Pradesh * Presently Union Territories
 
State-wise statement of local jurisdictions is given at page 12. Local and state jurisdictions or their names can hereafter be altered only through consultations and can be given effect to only after the views of minority groups are mediated and effectively resolved.

Article 2.3 Obligations of the Nation-State
It shall be the obligation of the nation-state to maintain the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the nation and peaceful and cordial relations with other sovereign states. The national and state governments shall provide higher level infrastructure to enable local governments to create an egalitarian, non-exploitative, cultured, educated, healthy, responsible and self-reliant society, while conserving and enriching the cultural and natural heritage.

Note: This Article replaces the "Directive Principles of State Policy" of the present Constitution that speak of laudable objectives but do not provide the political and social environment for realising them.

State-wise Statement of Local Jurisdictions
(See Article 2.2)
Note: Independent city governments presently called municipal corporations should be seperated from district governments but can have self-governed towns and villages in their jurisdiction. District governments shall consist of town and village governments.

District headquarters shall hereafter be called district capitals. Large cities that are independent governments cannot be the capitals of district governments. In districts in which such large cities are capitals, the capital will have to be moved to a town within the district.

This statement shall have to be developed state-wise based on these principles.


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