objective of society should be to attain high level of human
development with emphasis on spiritual development. Technology
can change life-styles but not the quality of human existence.
Human development was at its zenith in Bharat in ancient times.
It is today at the lowest ebb. This Part deals with initiatives
to attain high levels of human development within the shortest
Article 15.1 Basic
education, health-care and family welfare
There can be no
solution for meeting the needs of basic education, health-care
and family welfare other than giving full control to grassroots
governments to manage these programmes under the overall
coordination of district and city governments. Local governments
shall hereafter control the entire budget and personnel of basic
education, health-care and family welfare. Villages and urban
neighbourhoods especially of the poor shall control their
The teachers presently under the state government shall have to
apply to local governments of their choice and, after selection,
shall be appointed by them. If a teacher does not get local
appointment within a reasonable period, the state government
shall terminate his or her services and give compensation as per
Article 15.2 Higher
Based on the
colonial idiom that the state is best, knows best, and people
being undependable need to be ruled, after independence the
Indian government pursued the colonial practice of education
institutions and curricula controlled by state boards and state
universities. Private initiative has been heavily controlled and
often scuttled. This has led to short supply of education,
wasteful bureaucratic overheads, and mediocrity in standards.
As the State could not meet the demand, some states opened
technical education to private initiatives. Since legitimate
controls to monitor standards were not installed, teaching shops
came up in some states. As a reaction and misinterpreting court
decisions, stringent regulations were imposed that have again
tended to scuttle all private initiatives.
In democracy, the people have the democratic right to educate
the community. Educational institutions should be of three
institutions that provide education at subsidised fees,
trusts that provide education at operating costs, often
promoting excellence, and
institutions that give dividends to investors and provide
education at price
acceptable by the market, promoting relevance.
The state shall
encourage all such initiatives in future. Private universities
shall be encouraged, and permitted to charge pre-notified fees,
provided they institute stipulated infrastructure.
Article 15.3 Private
universities and colleges
practice of higher education controlled solely by state
universities straitjackets higher education and chokes
creativity and innovation. The state shall encourage private
trusts to institute universities and colleges. The only control
the state shall exercise is on provisioning essential
infrastructure and an academic council with professional
Private universities and colleges can charge any fee they
pre-notify. The trust can use the surplus generated for
improving infrastructure, expansion and scholarships to the
needy. The state shall also institute scholarships and loans for
Article 15.4 Professional
councils such as councils of architecture, engineering and
medicine are designed to regulate professional ethics and
practice, and professional education. They are presently
constituted at the national level. This tends to establish
uniform practices at the national level and curbs initiatives
and innovation at the local level to suit local needs.
The legislation shall be modified to provide for state level
councils in each discipline, coordinated by a national council.
The state councils will make state variations in education to
suit local needs within the broad standards established by the
national council. The law will provide that certification by a
state councils shall enable professional practice in any part of
India, subject to registration with the local government. No
professional council shall have more than 20 per cent government
members in them.
Article 15.5 Admission
The state shall engage
one or more private trusts to organise aptitude tests for higher
secondary and college graduates for admission
to graduate and post graduate programmes. The various colleges
and universities shall use the scores obtain by students in this
tests for admission purposes. Employers can also use these tests
scores for shortlisting candidates seeking employment. State
managed numerous admission tests which lead to multiple testing
and harassment to students shall be discontinued.
Vacation in educational institutions
The colonial rulers
introduced the summer vacation in educational institutions to
enable them to go to hill capitals or vacation in Britain to
avoid the Indian summer. This practise has been continued after
independence. The youth can do hardly anything productive during
the hostile summer months.
Like other activities, students too can work indoors during
summer months. Soon after this Constitution comes into force,
the main vacation in educational institutions shall be in the
festive winter months between October and December, with a
two-week semester break in summer.
The youth can then, during vacation, travel near and far, absorb
the environment and culture, and partake in active sports. It
will thereby get better informed about the environment and
culture. Professional students can visit villages and assist in
local programmes. Rural youth can learn improved agriculture and
animal husbandry practices.
Hostels of educational institutions can be converted into low
budget tourist accommodation in the festive winter months. They
can, as a result, earn several hundred crores of rupees for
furthering education! At present, they are wasted during summer
months and deteriorate due to nonuse.
Article 15.7 Spiritual
A learning programme of
"Society and Universal Values of Humanism" inspired by
all religions should be prepared and introduced in the education
and awareness programmes. Separate classes for each religious
entity based on the teachings in their religions in regard to
universal values of humanism should also be introduced.
For this programme to have practical relevance, control and
decision-making over local financial and environmental resources
and social issues, such as land, water systems, forests,
education and health-care, should be speedily transferred to
local governments. Local communities will then have the
opportunity to practice ethics in their day to day lives.