Part 14: National and Link Languages

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Article 14.1 National languages
The following languages shall be the national languages of India and the official languages of the states mentioned against them:

1 Assamese: Assam
2 Bengali: Bengal, Tripura
3 Gujarati: Gujarat, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu
4 Hindi: Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan,Uttar Pradesh,   
             Andaman & Nicobar Island, Delhi, Chandigarh
5 Kannada: Karnataka
6 Kashmiri
7 Konkani:
Goa
8 Malayalam: Kerala, Lakshdweep
9 Manipuri: Manipur
10 Marathi: Maharashtra
11 Nepali: Sikkim
12 Oriya: Orissa
13 Punjabi: Punjab
14 Sanskrit
15 Sindhi
16 Tamil:
Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry
17 Telgu: Andhra Pradesh
18 Urdu: Jammu and Kashmir
 
All work in the states including that in the local and state courts and state agencies shall be conducted in the official language of the state.

14.2 Link languages
A language needs to be identified as the international link language and another as the national link language. With the advent of internet, English has indisputably emerged as the international link language. English shall be the international link language of India.
 
In so far as the national link language is concerned, if a referendum is held, three languages are likely to emerge as contenders, namely Hindi, English and Sanskrit, in the order stated. Tamil Nadu is likely to veto Hindi as it has vehemently done in the past. Its contention is that Tamil being a Dravedian language, its grammar is entirely different from most other Indian languages including Hindi whose grammar is based on Sanskrit.
 
In a democracy, a language cannot be imposed on any constituent. Sanskrit is likely to be even less acceptable to most constituents and vetoed by Tamil Nadu, more vehemently than even Hindi. Thus the only acceptable national link language can be English. Since it has already become the international link language, it will be useful to make it the national link and official language of India. Hindi can be given the status of the principal national language.
 
To sum up, all the 18 languages listed in Article 14.1 shall be the national languages of India with Hindi being the principal national language. English will be the national link and official language, and the international link language of India.

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