structure of public bureaucracy in India is entirely based on
colonial practices. The all India services, that is Indian
Administrative, Police and Forest Services, are elite cadres
designed to occupy top positions at the local, state and
national levels with accountability, earlier to the colonial
rulers, now to the central government. Services controlled by
and accountable to the state governments handle most local
matters without any accountability to the local governments and
the people. In some states such as Uttar Pradesh, even the
municipal employees have been made into transferable state
Permanent but transferable departmental heads have become tools
of major abuse in democracy. Favoured postings are often made
based on heavy kickbacks, while forthright officers serving the
people well are summarily transferred.
Centralisation and absence of accountability to the people has
also led to the emergence of a massive corrupted bureaucracy
creating heavy wasteful overheads, slowing down decision-making,
and inflicting harassment on citizens due to multiplicity of
authorities. Transfer of police officers based on political
mechanisation has resulted in criminalisation of politics and
politicising of crime. Creation of a large number of state
authorities on local matters has added to the woes of the
In democracy, every local, state and national government should
have its own slim bureaucracy accountable to the people, and not
to any higher level government. The departmental heads should be
protected from abuse through transfers and made accountable to
the people. In short, a complete overhaul of public bureaucracy
is called for. It will have to be appropriately phased to
prevent dislocation in public management.
Separate local, state and national services
(1) Every local,
state and national government shall have its own slim
bureaucracy handling respectively local, state and national
matters. All recruitment to All India Services and to state
services dealing with local issues shall be discontinued
(2) The officers of the above services already in service will
play a pivotal role in the process of restructuring the public
bureaucracy. This will include restructuring the services,
designing work systems, and preparing operating manual for
various departments, such as local administration of justice,
police, works, education, health-care, family welfare, land,
water systems, forests, and minerals. They will field test and
validate these manuals. They will also commission consultants to
prepare working manuals for scientific regional planning using
satellite imagery at the local, state and national level,
re-iteratively coordinated, and norms for appointment of
planning consultants for preparing the plans with the
involvement of the people.
(3) They will assist the sovereign rights commissions in
promoting transparency through the rights of the people to
information, consultation, participation and referendum, and
monitor its implementation.
(4) The chief district and city judges will take control over
administration of local justice and coordinate with the district
and city governors in providing adequate budget, restoring
judicial powers to village panchayats, strengthening local
courts, and streamlining procedures.
Article 13.11 Autonomous
(1) Departmental heads
identified by the chief executive shall be appointed on contract
with the approval of the concerned parliament. Their services
can be terminated only with its approval. They can, as a result,
exercise professional autonomy, with accountability to the
(2) The elected chief executive shall, soon after his election,
identify departmental heads either personally or, if he so
wishes, though a selection process, and refer them to the
concerned parliament for granting approval to the appointments.
A joint appointments committee of the two houses of the
concerned parliament shall interview the candidates and approve
or reject them. In case a candidate is rejected, the chief
executive shall have to propose another person.
(3) After approval, the departmental heads will be appointed on
contract for four years terminating with the term of the chief
executive. If the chief executive wants to terminate their
services earlier, he can do so only with the approval of the
appointments committee of the parliament. The departmental head
will, as a result, be able to exercise professional autonomy and
assert accountability to the people.
(4) The departmental heads will control appointment, transfers
and removal of all staff reporting to them thus protecting them
from political abuse. Thus a district police chief may not agree
to politically motivated prosecution of any citizen or transfer
of his subordinate.
Article 13.12 Pay scales
A committee of the
concerned council of stakeholders shall, whenever considered
necessary, deliberate upon and from time to time review the
principles on which pay scales and perquisites of professional
and supporting staff shall be determined. The emoluments will be
based on capabilities required and the responsibilities, and
will be similar irrespective of whether an employee is in a
local, state or national government.
Article 13.2 Armed forces
The President shall be
the supreme commander of the armed forces. The three wings,
army, navy and air force, shall be under the command of the
Chief Commander of Army, Chief Commander of Navy and Chief
Commander of Air force respectively. The chief commanders shall
be appointed on contract for five years with the approval of a
joint committee of the two houses of the national parliament. If
for any reason their contract is to be terminated earlier, it
can be done only with the approval of the said committee.
The senior most chief commander shall be the Chairman of the
Committee of Chief Commanders. The committee shall, subject of
the overall control of the minister in-charge defence appointed
by the President, take all policy decisions. The chairman of the
committee shall be ex officio Secretary to the Ministry of
Defence advising the Minister on all issues relating to defence.
An Assistant Secretary shall assist him in inter-ministerial
The National Sovereign Rights Commission shall constitute a
committee to review derogatory colonial practices that are still
in vogue in the armed forces. For instance, soldiers are often
deployed for menial work. Further, the cadre of commissioned
officers has been made elitist. A junior commission was created
by the colonial rulers, to which soldiers could aspire to rise.
It is still in existence. Such a position does not exist in good
democracies and, theoretically, a soldier can become a general.
The committee shall review all such practices and restructure
the practices to suit a democratic environment.